In this contribution we are looking at communication values that express cultural style as coded in language. In the diagram below is our iceberg where we can see that Americans tend to prefer a “can-do” approach while Germans value “Klarheit”, or clarity. This particular difference tends to cause friction between these two cultural groups without it ever being detected.
To illustrate, let’s begin with a short dialog between a German and an American working professional. John, the American client has expressed the desire to have a particular change in a product that Wolfgang, the German employee from the supplier company, is developing. Let’s pay particular attention to the way the German developer disagrees with the American client’s suggestion. With a trained eye, or ear, it is possible to recognize communicative values particular to Germans and Americans.
John: So this new change should really round out the product. We want to make sure our end customer gets a lot for his money. The trend is moving in that direction too.
Wolfgang: Yes but uh the problem is that we started this project and all this plannings uh around three months three months before and uh all our budgets and all the development had been based on this first inquiry of you. So we had received in the meantime all our quotations from suppliers from the software company and uhm all the project has been uh developed on this uh this […?] so and even the first field tests had started and so we, I think if we make any changes now we will have a financial problem here also. Because changes mean new development and meaning additional staff and uh time consuming… additional costs.
John: Look, anything is possible if you want it to be. I’m sure you’ll find a solution
Wolfgang: So what I can offer now I can uh we can make uhm a meeting with our project team and we will check how big this new change will involve the the status of the project now and I will let you know maybe by tomorrow then. Maybe if this helps in the meantime and tomorrow we will talk again.
American working professionals value a “can-do” approach to decision making processes, in which ideally, one looks at a situation and focuses on finding solutions, quickly. An employee who is good at finding creative solutions is considered to be “pro-active”: a highly prized characteristic in American society. Germans on the other hand focus on “Klarheit” and the quality of their product. In the dialog, the “can-do” approach emerges when John says: “anything is possible if you want it to be”. In addition, John has communicated a pro-active style when he suggested making pre-emptive alterations in the product. At the home office, John’s ability to be one step ahead of the needs in the market is likely to be recognized and valued by his boss. This is not to say that Germans don’t think similarily, rather what I am pointing out is that Americans are known to make continual alternations during a product development even if these cancel earlier decisions. Germans tend to feel this is a poor engineering decision because projects are planned in detail and should not be adjusted. This is b because alterations imply the engineering team was not thorough during the planning stage. Therefore, Wolfgang is more than likely to want to disagree.
The German value of clarity can be seen in the way Gerhard disagrees with John. His strategy was to remind John of the history leading up to the dialog between them. In addition, Wolfgang argued his position with information, facts and technical details. Also note how quickly the disagreement occurred: he came straight to the point with a very short token agreement (i.e., yes, but). There are times when Americans express a direct disagreement, but usually about less important topics. In this situation Gerhard is the supplier who is talking to his client, which to an American is important and requires a more indirect, softened style. While the need to disagree is apparent, an American may take more time to show a person oriented style by extending the token agreement, and focusing on points that indicate agreement. In contrast, Germans tend to value clarity and discussion in the process of finding a solution. By presenting information one shows cooperation and good-will. In addition, the receiver doesn’t need to interpret the meaning or assume the speaker’s intentions. In Wolfgang’s world, an employee is valued for their ability to show technical know-how by pointing out the “problems” connected with suggestions. Critical thinking is highly valued and often misunderstood by Americans who expect a can-do approach.
The result is the German feels a topic is not properly discussed if one does not look at ideas critically. From this point of view, behavior appears to be superficial, uninformed, and too simple. The American on the other hand feels the German is communicating “no” each time he says: “the problem is” or “yes, but”. The American is not aware that the need to find “clarity” through critical discussion is actually a show of service oriented behavior.